Tax-Aware Investing: Further Reading

 

Journal Article

Partnership Allocations and Their Effects on Tax-Aware Fund Investors

We discuss certain accounting principles relevant for investors in tax-aware funds structured as limited partnerships. We present a simple stylized model that illustrates that under such accounting principles new investors do not materially suffer from unrealized gains accumulated in a tax-aware fund.

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Journal Article

Should Taxable Investors Shun Dividends?

We evaluate the tax benefit of dividend avoidance for quantitative multi-style strategies and find that dividend avoidance generally reduces implementation efficiency, thus lowering expected pre-tax returns.

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Working Paper

How Tax Efficient Are Equity Styles?

We explore the after-tax performance, tax exposure and tax efficiency of commonly used equity-style portfolios. We focus on equity styles based on size, value, growth and momentum, well known within the cross-sectional return landscape.

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The information set forth herein has been obtained or derived from sources believed by AQR Capital Management, LLC (“AQR”), to be reliable. However, AQR does not make any representation or warranty, express or implied, as to the information’s accuracy or completeness, nor does AQR recommend that the attached information serve as the basis of any investment decision. This document has been provided to you solely for information purposes and does not constitute an offer or solicitation of an offer, or any advice or recommendation, to purchase any securities or other financial instruments, and may not be construed as such. This document is intended exclusively for the use of the person to whom it has been delivered by AQR, and it is not to be reproduced or redistributed to any other person.

Diversification does not eliminate the risk of experiencing investment losses.

The investment strategy and themes discussed herein may be unsuitable for investors depending on their specific investment objectives and financial situation.

There is no guarantee that this strategy will be successful. There is a potential for loss. This material is intended for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal or tax advice, nor is it intended to replace the advice of a qualified attorney or tax advisor. You should conduct your own analysis and consult with professional advisors prior to making any investment decision. Changes in tax laws or severe market events, among various other risks, as described herein, can adversely impact performance expectations and realized results.

Risks of Tax Aware Strategies

This list is not exhaustive; there are numerous advantages and risks associated with our Tax Aware Strategies that are not fully discussed here.

Underperformance of pretax returns: tax-aware strategies are investment strategies with the associated risk of pretax returns meaningfully underperforming expectations.

Adverse variation in tax benefits: deductible losses and expenses allocated by the strategy may be less than expected.

Lower marginal tax rates: the value of losses and expenses depends on an individual investor’s marginal tax rate, which may be lower than expected for reasons including low Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) due to unexpected losses and the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT).

Inefficient use of allocated losses and expenses: the tax benefit of the strategy may be lower than expected if an investor cannot use the full value of losses and expenses allocated by the strategy to offset gains and income of the same character from other sources. This may occur for a variety of reasons including variation in gains and income realized by other investments, at-risk rules, limitation on excess business losses, or insufficient outside cost basis in the partnership.

Adverse changes in tax law or IRS challenge: the potential tax benefit of the strategy may be lessened or eliminated prospectively by changes in tax law or retrospectively by an IRS challenge under current law if conceded or upheld by a court. In the case of an IRS challenge, penalties may apply.