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White Paper

Understanding a Tax-Aware Defensive Equity Long-Short Strategy

We describe a hypothetical Tax-Aware Defensive Equity Long-Short strategy, including its construction and pre-tax and after-tax performance. The strategy closely replicates the pre-tax performance of a similar hypothetical tax-agnostic strategy and has the potential to achieve a meaningful tax benefit for a taxable investor.

Bibliography

Defensive Equity Bibliography

We have compiled a list of books, journal articles and working papers that were helpful in developing our research around defensive equity investing.

Journal Article

Corporate Governance, Accounting Outcomes and Organizational Performance

The purpose of this paper is to start the process of developing reliable and valid measures to assess how corporate governance affects corporate performance.

Journal Article

Why Are Earnings Kinky? An Examination of the Earnings Management Explanation

An empirical regularity documented by Hayn (1995) is that there is a ‘‘kink’’ in the earnings distribution: too few firms report small losses and too many firms report small profits.

Working Paper

Predicting Earnings Management

Is accounting information useful to predict when corporate managers intentionally inflate reported earnings for their firms? To answer this, we study a sample of firms that were forced to restate earnings.

Working Paper

Balance Sheet Information and Future Stock Returns

A 2004 paper by Hirshleifer, Hou, Teoh and Zhang argues that measuring the level of net operating assets is a superior predictor of a company's future earnings and stock returns. Here, we point out how their claim may be misleading.

Working Paper

Time-Varying Leverage Demand and Predictability of Betting-Against-Beta

We test the predictability of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies and find that they perform better when past market returns have been high.

White Paper

Are Defensive Stocks Expensive? A Closer Look at Value Spreads

Investors have been concerned about the rich valuation of defensive stocks and how that may crimp returns. Using value spreads, we analyze the relative prices of defensive stocks and discuss the difficulties in predicting style returns.

Journal Article

The Limits to Arbitrage Revisited: The Accrual and Asset-Growth Anomalies

It is puzzling that such straightforward asset pricing anomalies like the well-publicized accruals and asset-growth effects are seemingly overlooked by investors.

White Paper

Understanding Defensive Equity

This paper analyzes the intuition behind defensive equity. We then analyze the empirical evidence, construction and performance of defensive equity portfolios, and discuss the possible explanations for its historical outperformance.