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White Paper

Understanding a Tax-Aware Defensive Equity Long-Short Strategy

We describe a hypothetical Tax-Aware Defensive Equity Long-Short strategy, including its construction and pre-tax and after-tax performance. The strategy closely replicates the pre-tax performance of a similar hypothetical tax-agnostic strategy and has the potential to achieve a meaningful tax benefit for a taxable investor.

Journal Article

Fact and Fiction About Low-Risk Investing

Low-risk investing has received a lot of attention over the past decade. An intensive academic debate has spurred, and been spurred by, the growing market for low-risk strategies. This article presents five fact and dispels five fictions about low-risk investing.

Working Paper

How Do Factor Premia Vary Over Time? A Century of Evidence

We examine four prominent factor premia – value, momentum, carry, and defensive – over a century from six asset classes. The results offer support for time-varying risk premia models with important implications for theory seeking to explain the sources of factor returns.

Working Paper

Time-Varying Leverage Demand and Predictability of Betting-Against-Beta

We test the predictability of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies and find that they perform better when past market returns have been high.

Journal Article

Betting Against Correlation: Testing Theories of the Low-Risk Effect

What drives the low-risk effect? We test whether it's driven by leverage constraints (and thus risk should be measured using beta) or behavioral effects (and thus risk should be measured by idiosyncratic risk).

Journal Article

The Low-Volatility Anomaly: Market Evidence on Systemic Risk vs. Mispricing

Researchers have demonstrated a long-term connection between future stock returns and various measures of prior stock price variability.

Journal Article

Investing in the Asset-Growth Anomaly Across the Globe

Several studies have show that slow-growing companies return more to stock-market investors than fast-growing companies, based on the growth in the book value of companies’ assets.

White Paper

Are Defensive Stocks Expensive? A Closer Look at Value Spreads

Investors have been concerned about the rich valuation of defensive stocks and how that may crimp returns. Using value spreads, we analyze the relative prices of defensive stocks and discuss the difficulties in predicting style returns.

Journal Article

Size Matters, If You Control Your Junk

When it comes to equity investing, size matters—and in a bigger way than once thought—but only when controlling for junk. We examine seven challenges that have been hurled at the size effect and dismantle each one by controlling for a firm's quality.

Bibliography

Defensive Equity Bibliography

We have compiled a list of books, journal articles and working papers that were helpful in developing our research around defensive equity investing.