International Diversification Works (Eventually)

Topics - Equities Portfolio Construction

${ numberSection } ${ text }
International Diversification Works (Eventually)

Critics of international diversification observe that it does not protect investors against short-term market crashes because markets become more correlated during downturns. Although true, this observation misses the big picture. Common, short-term crashes can be painful, but long-term returns are far more important to wealth creation and destruction. We show that over the long term, markets do not tend to crash at the same time. This finding is no surprise because even though market panics can be important drivers of short-term returns, country-specific economic performance dominates over the long term.

What drives the difference between the short- and long-term benefits of diversification? One hypothesis is that short-term market downturns are, at least partly, about panics and broad-based selling frenzies. Long-term results, however, tend to be more about economic performance.

We explored this hypothesis by decomposing returns into (1) a component arising from multiple expansion (or contraction) and (2) a component arising from economic performance. By investigating the dynamics of these return contributors, we tried to offer additional insight into why global diversification can disappoint over the short term but be the free (and hearty!) lunch that theory and common sense say it should be over the long term.

Diversification protects investors against the adverse effects of holding concentrated positions in countries with poor long-term economic performance. Over longer horizons, underlying economic growth matters more than short-lived panics with respect to returns, and international diversification does an excellent job of protecting investors.

Graham and Dodd Award 2011

Published in

Financial Analysts Journal

AQR Capital Management, LLC, (“AQR”) provide links to third-party websites only as a convenience, and the inclusion of such links does not imply any endorsement, approval, investigation, verification or monitoring by us of any content or information contained within or accessible from the linked sites. If you choose to visit the linked sites, you do so at your own risk, and you will be subject to such sites' terms of use and privacy policies, over which AQR.com has no control. In no event will AQR be responsible for any information or content within the linked sites or your use of the linked sites.

The information contained herein is only as current as of the date indicated, and may be superseded by subsequent market events or for other reasons. The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of AQR Capital Management, LLC, its affiliates or its employees. This information is not intended to, and does not relate specifically to any investment strategy or product that AQR offers. It is being provided merely to provide a framework to assist in the implementation of an investor’s own analysis and an investor’s own view on the topic discussed herein. Past performance is not a guarantee of future results.


Hypothetical performance results have many inherent limitations, some of which, but not all, are described herein. The hypothetical performance shown was derived from the retroactive application of a model developed with the benefit of hindsight.  Hypothetical performance results are presented for illustrative purposes only.


Diversification does not eliminate the risk of experiencing investment loss.


Certain publications may have been written prior to the author being an employee of AQR.

This material is intended for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal or tax advice, nor is it intended to replace the advice of a qualified attorney or tax advisor.


AQR Capital Management is a global investment management firm, which may or may not apply similar investment techniques or methods of analysis as described herein. The views expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of AQR.